# Java Summary: Math Class

Some basic math functions can be found in the Math class.
The `StrictMath`

class (not described here) may produce less accurate results and be slower,
but will produce absolutely identical results, bit for bit, on
all machines. Don't use `StrictMath`

unless you need this very specific
kind of portability.

If you need numbers that exceed the range of `long`

, use `java.math.BigInteger`

.
If you need to do exact decimal arithmetic, use `java.math.BigDecimal`

,
which gives complete control over precision and rounding, eg for financial calculations.
Assume following declarations

float f; double d, d1, d2; double ar; // angle in radians.xis any of int, long, float, or double.

Math Constants | ||

Two common constants are defined in the Math class. | ||

double | Math.E() |
Value of e, 2.718282..., base of the natural logarithms. |

double | Math.PI() |
Value of pi, 3.14159265 .... |

Math Methods | ||

Trigonometric Methods | ||

All trigonometric method parameters are measured
in radians, the normal mathematical system of angles, and not in degrees,
the normal human angular measurement system. Use the toRadians or toDegrees
methods to convert between these systems, or use the fact that there
are 2*PI radians in 360 degrees. In addition to the methods below, the arc
methods are also available. | ||

double | Math.sin(ar) |
Returns the sine of ar. |

double | Math.cos(ar) |
Returns the cosine of ar. |

double | Math.tan(ar) |
Returns the tangent of ar. |

double | Math.toRadians(d) |
Returns d (angle in degrees) converted to radians. |

double | Math.toDegrees(ar) |
Returns ar (angle in radians) converted to degrees. |

Exponential Methods | ||

The two basic functions for logarithms and power are available.
These both use the base e (Math.E) as is the usual case in mathematics.
| ||

double | Math.exp(d) |
Returns e (2.71...) to the power d. |

double | Math.pow(d1, d2) |
Returns d1^{d2}. |

double | Math.log(d) |
Returns the logarithm of d to base e. |

double | Math.log10(d) |
Returns the logarithm of d to base 10. |

Misc Methods | ||

double | Math.sqrt(d) |
Returns the square root of d. |

t | Math.abs(x) |
Returns absolute value of x with same type as
the parameter: int, long, float, or double. |

t | Math.max(x, y) |
Returns maximum of x and y with same type as
the parameter: int, long, float, or double. |

t | Math.min(x, y) |
Returns minimum of x and y with same type as
the parameter: int, long, float, or double. |

Integer Related Methods | ||

The following methods translate
floating point values to integer values, altho these values
may still be stored in a double. | ||

double | Math.floor(d) |
Returns the closest integer-valued double which is
equal to or less than d. |

double | Math.ceil(d) |
Returns the closest integer-valued double which is
equal to or greater than d. |

double | Math.rint(d) |
Returns the closest integer-valued double to d. |

long | Math.round(d) |
Returns the long which is closest in value to the double d. |

int | Math.round(f) |
Returns the int which is closest in value to the float f. |

Random Numbers | ||

double | Math.random() |
Returns a number x in the range, 0.0 <= x < 1.0. |

## Other math libraries

- jakarta.apache.org/commons/math/ - Apache Jakarta Math library.
- www.ia.hiof.no/~kyvh/SciLib/docs/scilib.html - SciLib

Copyleft 2005 Fred Swartz