# Java Notes: Extended Assignment Operators

It's very common to see statement like the following, where you're adding something to a variable.

sum = sum + currentValue; i = i + 2;

A shortcut way to write assignments like this is to use the += operator. It's one operator symbol so don't put blanks between the + and =. With this notation it isn't necessary to repeat the variable that is being assigned to.

sum += currentValue; // Same as "sum = sum + currentValue" i += 2; // Same as "i = i + 2"

## Commonly used with arithmetic operators

You can use this style with all arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /, and even %).

measurementRange /= 2; // Divides measurementRange by 2. accountBalance -= withdrawal; // Subtracts withdrawal from accountBalance.

## Four ways to add one

There are four ways to add one to a variable. Many languages only support the first way. Current compilers translate them into equivalent code, so there's no efficiency difference, unlike early C compilers where ++ was more efficient.

i = i + 1; // Common in all languages. i += 1; // Common when adding values other than one. i++; // Most common, but only works for adding one. ++i; // Least common.

## Can be used with most computational operators

This notation can also be used with the bit operators (^, &, |).
It can not be used with the logical *short-circuit* operators &&
and ||, but you can use the & and | versions.
It can only be used with *binary* (two operand) operators, not *unary*
operators.

## Where it makes a difference

For simple variables, which kind of assignment to use is mainly a style or readability difference.
However, when assigning to *l-values* that require computation, there is
a real difference, both in performance and possible side-effects.

a[f(x)] = a[f(x)] + 1; // Calls f(x) twice! a[f(x)] += 1; // Calls f(x) only once.